Detailed pharmacologic knowledge stands alone as a basic science, but successful therapeutics requires application of this body of scientific information to disease-induced abnormalities in individual patients. For this reason our basic science teaching of pharmacology is complemented with teaching that integrates physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology in the context of common major diseases. This constitutes what is considered to be active clinical pharmacology. This strategy allows the demonstration of common principles applicable many diseases . The underlying principle herein is that the pathophysiology of disease and the basic facts of pharmacology must be interdigitated in order to select drugs and establish therapeutic objectives. The basic principles of pharmacology are combined with specific factors of disease and drug such that the dynamics of pharmacology and pathophysiology can be put into the perspective of rational drugs use or therapeutics.