|Development and Characterization of An Injury-free Model of Functional Pain in Rats by Exposure to Red Light.
|Year of Publication
|Khanna R, Patwardhan A, Yang X, Li W, Cai S, Ji Y, Chew LA, Dorame A, Bellampalli SS, Schmoll RW, Gordon J, Moutal A, Vanderah TW, Porreca F, Ibrahim MM
|Animals, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Hyperalgesia, Light, Male, Pain, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley
We report the development and characterization of a novel, injury-free rat model in which nociceptive sensitization after red light is observed in multiple body areas reminiscent of widespread pain in functional pain syndromes. Rats were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (RLED) (LEDs, 660 nm) at an intensity of 50 Lux for 8 hours daily for 5 days resulting in time- and dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in both male and female rats. Females showed an earlier onset of mechanical allodynia than males. The pronociceptive effects of RLED were mediated through the visual system. RLED-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were reversed with medications commonly used for widespread pain, including gabapentin, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acetaminophen failed to reverse the RLED induced hypersensitivity. The hyperalgesic effects of RLED were blocked when bicuculline, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, was administered into the rostral ventromedial medulla, suggesting a role for increased descending facilitation in the pain pathway. Key experiments were subjected to a replication study with randomization, investigator blinding, inclusion of all data, and high levels of statistical rigor. RLED-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia without injury offers a novel injury-free rodent model useful for the study of functional pain syndromes with widespread pain. RLED exposure also emphasizes the different biological effects of different colors of light exposure. PERSPECTIVE: This study demonstrates the effect of light exposure on nociceptive thresholds. These biological effects of red LED add evidence to the emerging understanding of the biological effects of light of different colors in animals and humans. Understanding the underlying biology of red light-induced widespread pain may offer insights into functional pain states.
|PubMed Central ID
|K08 NS104272 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
R01 AT009716 / AT / NCCIH NIH HHS / United States
R01 DA042852 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
R01 NS098772 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
Development and Characterization of An Injury-free Model of Functional Pain in Rats by Exposure to Red Light.
Faculty Member Reference:
Mohab M. Ibrahim, PhD, MD
Frank Porreca, PhD
Todd Vanderah, PhD